Hummingbird Facts and FAQs for Kids


Busy time at the hummingbird feeder during fall migration in Texas
Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds
Photo courtesy of the author

Hummingbirds comprise the family Trochilidae, among the smallest of birds, with most species measuring in the 3"-5" range.

They feature long slender needlelike bills adapted for reaching deep into tubular flowers.

What do hummingbirds eat?

Hummingbirds, like other birds and other animals, need food, water, and shelter, the basic necessities of life.

Their diet consists of nectar from flowers (red is the favorite color), and small insects such as aphids and spiders.

Hummingbirds feed in many small meals, consuming small invertebrates and up to twelve times their own body weight in nectar each day.

Many plant species rely on hummingbirds for pollination and provide nectar and tiny insects in exchange. Hummingbirds staunchly and agressively defend a feeding area, or feeder, even when not feeding.

Can hummingbirds walk? No ... they can only fly

Rufous Hummingbird
Rufous Hummingbird
Photo courtesy of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

The beat of their wings is so rapid, up to 55 times a second, that a "humming" sound is produced, and the wings appear blurred. They are the only bird species that can fly backwards, or even upside down.

Hummingbirds can't walk or hop, but they can shuffle around a feeder with its extremely short legs, which are not very strong.

How big is a hummingbird nest?

A hummingbird's nest is very small, usually about 1.5" in diameter. Eggs are likewise small, less than 1" long, about the size of a jelly bean.

The female lays her eggs on different days. The Ruby-Throated Hummingbird lays 2 eggs. Black-chinned Hummingbird, Anna's Hummingbird, Costa's Hummingbird, Calliope Hummingbird, Broad-tailed Hummingbird, Rufous Hummingbird and Allen's Hummingbird all lay 1-3 eggs. Gestation period is about 16-18 days.

How many hummingbird species are there?

The hummingbird family is very large, with over 330 species and 115 genera, mostly south of the U.S. Hummingbirds are found only in the Western Hemisphere, with almost half the species living in the "equatorial belt" between 10 degrees north and south of the equator. Fewer than two dozen species venture into the U.S. and Canada, and only a few species remain year-round.

Where are hummingbirds found in the United States?

In the Eastern and Central United States and Canada, the most common species is the Ruby-Throated hummingbird. Several species are in the Gulf region.

In the Western United States, one will often find Anna’s, Black-Chinned, Calliope, Broad-Tailed, Allen’s, White-Eared, and Rufous hummingbirds. In Texas and the Southwestern United States, all species will be found from time to time.

What is the most common hummingbird?

How to attract hummingbirds to your Texas landscape: hummingbird gardening!

The Ruby-Throated Hummingbird is the only species reguarly seen over most the eastern United States. Ruby-Throats are the only hummingbird found east of the Great Plains, except for the Rufous.

It is about 3 3/4" in length, and metallic green above. Its notes are a rapid, high-pitched squeaky, chipping sound.

The adult male has a brilliant ruby red throat (gorget), black chin, and deeply notched, forked tail.

The female's throat is white, and immatures are similar in color to the female. The female body is slender, with a blunt, rounded tail with white corners.

The female Ruby-Throated and Black-Chinned are very similar, but have separate ranges. Males use a repeating "pendulum" arch of flight to attract females.

How to attract hummingbirds to your Texas landscape: hummingbird gardening!

How big is a Ruby-Throated hummingbird?

They are about 3 3/4" in length. Their weight can range from 2 to 6 g (0.071 to 0.21 oz), with males averaging 3.4 g (0.12 oz) and the slightly larger female averaging 3.8 g (0.13 oz)

How long does a Ruby-Throated hummingbird live?

The average life span is estimated by experts to be 3 - 5 years. Most deaths occur in the first year of life. The record age of a banded Ruby-Throated hummingbird is 6 years, 11 months.

How do we make a hummingbird feeder mix?

When formulating your hummingbird mixture recipe, remember than nectar found in nature is typically in the range of 12%-35% sugar (sucrose). The solution you prepare should be similar to that found in nature.

We make our own solution, mixing four parts water to one part sugar, i.e., 20% sugar. We do not boil the water, but we find that using warmer water helps dissolve the sugar quicker.

We find that even if we miss the exact proportions, the hummingbirds don't mind ... after all, in nature the nectar level varies from plant to plant.

We typically do NOT add any sort of food coloring to the water, as our experience shows that the hummingbirds are not more attracted to feeders with colored water. However, for those that prefer an easy-to-use mixture, several safe commercially-available, colored nectar mixes are available.

Will I see the same hummingbirds next year?

Hummingbirds have an innate ability to remember their favorite feeding locales. Banding experts have shown time and time again that individual hummingbirds return to the same spot year after year.

So enjoy your hummers today ... and hopefully you will see them again next year!

Activities for children to learn about hummingbirds

  • Help your children select an attractive feeder for your home garden.
  • Teach your children how to make hummingbird mix ... it involves sugar, and water, and is fun!
  • Introduce the hummingbird species to your children via an easy to hold and read book. We recommend Stokes "Beginner's Guide to Hummingbirds". It is small, only 4" x 7" and has great pictures of common hummingbirds. It is a good starter book for young children with an interest in nature, yet contains enough identification tips and other information as they grow into teens, and young adults! We also like "About Hummingbirds: A Guide for Children".
  • Plant easy-to-grow hummingbird plants like zinnias and marigolds from seeds, watch them sprout, and watch the hummingbirds love them!
  • Learn the colors of the hummingbird, and color one yourself, like the ones shown below ...
click to display coloring image on a separate page
Color this hummingbird!
Photo courtesy of the Texas Parks and Wildlife
click to display coloring image on a separate page
Color this hummingbird!
Photo courtesy of Connecticut.gov